【中文句型】Chinese Sentence Patterns & Conjunctions 常用汉语基本句型教学 (汇总)

句子根据内部结构可分为单句和复句。单句是短语或词充当的、有特定的语调、能独立表达一定的意思的语言单位。复句由两个或两个以上意义相关,结构上互不作句子成分的分句组成。 复句中的各个分句之间一般有停顿,书面上用逗号,分号或冒号表示;复句前后有隔离性语音停顿,书面上用句号或问号,叹号表示。

Sentences can be divided into single sentences and complex sentences according to their internal structure. A single sentence is a linguistic unit that is acted as a phrase or word, has a specific intonation, and can independently express a certain meaning. A complex sentence is composed of two or more clauses that are related in meaning and do not constitute each other in terms of structure. There is usually a pause between each clause in a compound sentence, which is indicated by a comma, semicolon or colon in writing; there are isolated phonetic pauses before and after the compound sentence, which is indicated by a period, question mark, or exclamation mark in writing.

现代汉语基本句型表

 

<单句>

主谓句:由主谓词组构成的句子称为主谓句。

 

动词谓语句

我是中国人。 |购买力提高了。 |张老师教我们算术。 |一句话逗得大家笑起来。

 

形容词谓语句

田野绿了。 |大桥十分雄伟。 |天气热得十分厉害。 |她真漂亮。

 

名词谓语句

今天星期天。 |4月5日清明节。 |小伙子高高的个子。 |鲁迅浙江绍兴人。

 

主谓谓语句

老大娘心事太重。 |她性情温和。 |这个问题我们研究过。 |奶奶一个字也不认识。

 

 

非主谓句:由单个词或主谓词组以外的词组构成的句子称为非主谓句。

 

名词非主谓句

好大的风啊!|多么美的图画!|我的书呢?|一个温暖的下午。

 

动词非主谓句

下雨了。 |随手关门。 |请勿抽烟。 |加油!

 

形容词非主谓句

好极了!|太棒了!|慢一点。 |多好哇!

 

叹词非主谓句

唉!(来了。)|喂!(抓紧点儿。)|啊!(一言难尽。)|哎哟!

 

 

<复句>

 

并列关系

他一边跑,一边哭。 |我既不出去,又无事可做。

常用关联词:也,又,既…又,一边…一边,不是…而是。

 

承接关系

他走过去,拉起了她。 |他盛了饭,端过去,放在饭桌上。

关联词有:又,于是,然后。

 

递进关系

这本书我看过,而且看过不止一次。 |这种西瓜不仅个儿大,而且很好吃。 |我热爱家乡,特别热爱今天的家乡。

常用关联词:不但…而且,并且,甚至,更,不但不…反而…

 

选择关系

与其跪着生,不如站着死。 |要么是你记错了,要么是我忘记了。

关联词主要有:与其…不如,或者…或者,不是…就是,要么…要么。

 

总分关系

人死的意义不同,有的重如泰山,有的轻如鸿毛。 |战争可分为两类,一类是正义的,一类是非正义的。

至少需有两个层次。

 

转折关系

文章不长,内容却丰富。 |他年纪不大,见识却很不一般。

常用关联词:却、然而、但、不过、虽然…但是。

 

假设关系

纵有千难万险,也挡不住我们的前进步伐。 |要是没有一次次试验失败,就不会取得最后的成功。

常用关联词:如果…就,即使…也,假如…就。

 

条件关系

要改造沙漠,就得有充足的水源。 |只有认真地调查研究,才能把情况弄清楚。

主要关联词有:只有…才,除非…才,无论(不管)…也(都)。

 

因果关系

我十分感谢您,因为您教我知道许多道理。 |既然你对那个会议不感兴趣,那就不必去参加了。

主要关联词:因为…所以,既然…那么,之所以…是因为。

 

目的关系

为了提高生产率,就要不断进行技术革新。 |我们改乘了飞机,免得赶不上参加会议。

主要关联词:为了,为…起见,以便,为的是。

 

 

<按作用划分>

 

陈述句

桌子上有一本书。 |他是医生。 |你去通知他吧。 |这是我记错了。 |这种说法绝对不对。

述说事情的句子,用平缓的陈述语调。包括肯定的陈述、否定的陈述和强调的陈述,末尾常用“的、了、呢、罢了”等语气词。

 

疑问句

谁是最可爱的人呢?|这是你的衣服吗?|他有几岁了?|你去还是我去?|你喜欢不喜欢看电影?|你看见过他没有?|他愿意去还是不愿意去?

提出问题的句子,一般用疑问语调。包括特指问、是非问、选择问、正反问几种形式。

 

祈使句

你站起来。 |快去吧。 |请把桌上的报纸递给我。 |不要再闹了。 |禁止在场内吸烟!|不要这样称呼我吧!

表示要求别人做什么或不做什么的句子,用祈使语调。一般分为表示要求和表示禁止的两类。句末可用“吧、呀”等语气词。

 

感叹句

哈,这模样了!|太好了!|这座桥真长呀!|秋天的香山公园多么美丽呀!

表示某种强烈感情的句子,用感叹语调。句末常用“啊、啦”等语气词。

 

Modern Chinese Basic Sentence Pattern Table

 

<Single Sentence>

Subject-predicate sentence: A sentence composed of a subject-predicate phrase is called a subject-predicate sentence.

 

Verb predicate sentence

I am Chinese. |Purchasing power has increased. |Ms. Zhang teaches us arithmetic. |One sentence made everyone laugh.

 

Adjective predicates

The fields are green. |The bridge is very majestic. |The weather is very hot. |She is so beautiful.

 

Noun predicate sentence

today is Sunday. |Ching Ming Festival on April 5. |The young man is tall. |Lu Xun, from Shaoxing, Zhejiang.

 

Subject-Predicate-Predicate Statement

The old lady is too worried. |She has a gentle temperament. |We have studied this problem. |Grandma doesn’t know a word.

 

 

Non-subject-predicate sentence: A sentence composed of a single word or phrase other than the subject-predicate phrase is called a non-subject-predicate sentence.

 

Noun non-subject-predicate sentence

What a big wind! | What a beautiful picture! | Where is my book? | A warm afternoon.

 

Verb non-subject-predicate sentence

It’s raining. |Close the door easily. |Don’t smoke. |Come on!

 

Adjective non-subject-predicate sentence

Great! | Great! | Slow down. |How wonderful!

 

Interjection non-subject-predicate sentence

Alas! (coming.)|Hey! (Hurry up.)|Ah! (It’s hard to tell in a word.)|Ouch!

 

 

<Complex Sentence>

 

Parallel relationship

He ran while crying. |I neither go out nor do I have anything to do.

Commonly used related words: also, and, both…and, on one side…on the other side, not…but.

 

Undertaking relationship

He walked over and pulled her up. |He served the meal, brought it over, and put it on the dinner table.

Related words are: again, then, then.

 

Progressive relationship

I have read this book, and I have read it more than once. |This watermelon is not only big, but also delicious. |I love my hometown, especially my hometown today.

Commonly used related words: not only…but, and, even more, not only…but…

 

Select relationship

Instead of kneeling to live, it is better to stand and die. |Either you remembered it wrong, or I forgot.

Related words mainly include: rather than…, or…or, either…or, or…or.

 

Total score relationship

Death has different meanings, some are as heavy as a mountain, and some are as light as a feather. |War can be divided into two categories, one is just, and the other is unjust.

There must be at least two levels.

 

Transition relationship

The article is not long, but the content is rich. |He is not very old, but his knowledge is very unusual.

Commonly used related words: but, but, but, but, although…but.

 

Assumption relationship

Even with all kinds of difficulties and dangers, we can’t stop our progress. |If you don’t fail one test after another, you won’t get the final success.

Commonly used related words: if…just, even if…just, if…just.

 

Conditional relationship

To transform the desert, there must be sufficient water sources. |Only by careful investigation and research, can the situation be clarified.

The main related words are: only…only, unless…only, no matter (no matter)…also (all).

 

Causality

I am very grateful to you because you taught me many things. |Since you are not interested in that meeting, you don’t have to go to it.

Mainly related words: because…so, since…then, the reason…is because.

 

Purpose relationship

In order to increase productivity, it is necessary to continuously carry out technological innovation. |We changed to a plane so we won’t miss the meeting.

Mainly related words: for the sake of, for the sake of, for the sake of.

 

 

<Divided by Role>

 

Declarative sentence

There is a book on the table. |He is a doctor. |Go and notify him. |This is what I remembered wrong. |This statement is absolutely wrong.

Sentences that tell things, use a gentle statement tone. Including positive statements, negative statements, and emphasized statements. At the end, modal particles such as “的, 了, 了, quit” are often used.

 

Interrogative sentence

Who is the cutest person?|Is this your clothes?|How old is he?|Will you go or me?|Do you like watching movies?|Have you seen him?|He wants to go or Unwilling to go?

Question sentences are generally used in interrogative tone. Including specific questions, right and wrong questions, choice questions, positive and negative questions.

 

Imperative sentence

stand up. |Go ahead. |Please pass me the newspaper on the table. |Stop making trouble. |No smoking in the venue!|Don’t call me like that!

Sentences that ask others to do or not to do, use imperative intonation. Generally, it is divided into two categories: expressing requirements and expressing prohibition. Modal particles such as “ba, ah” can be used at the end of the sentence.

 

Exclamatory sentence

Ha, it looks like this! | Great! | This bridge is really long! | How beautiful is the Fragrant Hill Park in autumn!

A sentence that expresses a strong feeling, using an exclamatory tone. Modal particles such as “ah, la” are often used at the end of the sentence.