学中文【常用动词】TOP 25 Verbs in Chinese – 学写初级汉语高频动词表

例字:kàn,看,look。kū,哭,cry。xiào,笑,laugh。wén,闻,smell。tīng,听,listen。shuō,说,say。jiǎng,讲,speak。chī,吃,eat。chàng,唱,sing。xiǎng,想,think。dǎ,打,hit。tuī,推,push。lā,拉,pull。xiě,写,write。huà,画,paint。xǐ,洗,wash。zhǎo,找,lookfor。zuò,做,do。zuò,坐,sit。tī,踢,kick。tiào,跳,jump。pǎo,跑,run。zǒu,走,walk。lái,来,come。qù,去,go。

动词是一类词性,一般用来表示动作或状态的词汇。

Verbs are a type of part-of-speech, generally used to express actions or states.In English, verbs are mainly divided into two categories according to their functions and functions. One is predicate verbs and the other is non-predicate verbs. In Chinese grammar, the actions or dynamic changes of people or things usually appear after the noun subject or main sentence. In English, verbs also have tense and person changes.

在英语中,动词按作用和功能主要分为两大类,一类是谓语动词,另一类是非谓语动词。中文语法中表示人或事物的动作或一种动态变化,一般出现在名词主语或主句后面。在英语里,动词还有时态、人称的变化。

Verbs usually act as the predicate of a sentence or followed by a descriptive complement to act as the center of the predicate, indicating the action, existence, change of the subject, or the action and attitude of the subject to the object. Such as “He arrived.” (“He arrived”) (intransitive, indicating the dynamics of the subject) “We love our motherland” (“We love our motherland”) (the subject follows the object, indicating the subject’s attitude towards the object). Verbs can be modified by the adverb “bu”. Only a few verbs that express mental activity and some willing verbs can be preceded by adverbs of degree, such as being able to say “very afraid of him”, “like him a lot”, and “envy him very much”.

动词通常充当句子的谓语或后接描述性补语充当谓语中心,表示主语的动作、存在、变化,或主语对宾语的动作,态度。如“他来了。”(“He arrived”)(不及物,表示主语的动态)“我们热爱祖国”(“We love our motherland”)(主语跟着宾语,表示主语对宾语的态度)。动词可以受副词“不”修饰。只有少数表心理活动的动词和一些能愿动词能够前加程度副词,例如能说“很怕他”、“很喜欢他”、“很羡慕他”。

按照动词的意义可以分为实义动词,情态动词,系动词,助动词

实义动词是具体地表示动作行为,存在,心理活动的动词。其中有一类趋向动词可以单独作谓语,如“月亮下去了,太阳还没有出来”。还经常用在别的动词或形容词后边表示趋向,作趋向补语。如“拿<出>一本书”、“拿<出来>一本书”、“拿<出>一本书<来>”。

情态动词表示主语做某动作的可能,意愿,必要,也称为能愿动词。其包括能/能够(can)、会(can/will)、该/应该/应当(should)、配/值、宁可等。其特点是以实义动词作为补语。应当注意不同语言的情态动词没有严格的一一对应关系。有些在汉语中是“情态动词+动词”的表达在其他语言里是“实义动词+动名词作宾语”。

系动词是后接描述性的补语,描述主语状态的词。汉语中构成判断句的系词“是”,“乃”等词可以认为和英语的系动词“to be”作用类似。但是汉语的形容词可以直接作谓语修饰主语,如“他很帅”,这时没有必要迁就英语“He is handsome”而写成“他是帅的”。

助动词是一系列协助实义动词构成语法功能的动词。在英语中被助动词“协助”的实义动词要使用非限定结构。汉语只使用助词协助完成动词的时态,语态,语气。