中文句型分类 Chinese Sentence Patterns 主谓句 vs 非主谓句 (Simple Sentences)

句型一般指单句句型。Sentence patterns generally refer to single sentence patterns.

句型是根据句子的结构(句法成分的配置格局)对不同的单句进行分类,从而划分出的类型。Sentence pattern is the classification of different single sentences according to the structure of the sentence (the configuration pattern of the syntactic components), and thus the types are divided.

句型分为主谓句和非主谓句两大类:

  • 主谓句又分为三小类:动词谓语句,形容词谓语句,名词谓语句。(注意,网络上有些资料把“主谓谓语句”归为“句型”类,为了避免网友疑惑,特此说明,在最新版本的《现代汉语》(黄伯荣)中,主谓谓语句被移除出了“句型”类,划分到了“句式”类)
  • 非主谓句又分为五小类:动词性非主谓句,形容词性非主谓句,名词性非主谓句,叹词句,拟声词句。


定义:句型是句子的结构类,即根据句法成分的配置格局分出来的类。

句型和句式的区别

句型和句式都是根据结构分出的类名。句型是根据全句特点分出的上位类名,句式是根据句子的局部特点分出的下位类名。

句式分类:

主谓谓语句
“把”字句
“被”字句
连谓句
兼语句
双宾句
存现句
……

主谓句

由主语、谓语两个成分构成的单句叫主谓句。从谓语的构成看,它可以分成以下几个小类:

1.动词谓语句
由动词或动词短语充当谓语的句子叫动词谓语句。可归纳为以下几种类型:

(1)主+动+宾
西斜的阳光‖照着整条街道。

(2)主+动+补
肩膀‖磨破了。

(3)主+动+补+宾
长江三峡‖留下过许多人的梦。

(4)主+状+动
我们‖以前讨论过。

(5)主+状+动+补
他‖只答应了一声。

(6)主+状+动+补+宾
我‖最近去了一趟北京。

2.形容词谓语句
以形容词或形容词短语充当谓语的句子叫形容词谓语句。

春天的脚步‖近了。
天气‖清朗起来了。
晚来的海风‖清新而又凉爽。

3.名词谓语句
以名词性词语充当谓语的句子叫名词谓语句。

明天‖国庆节。
这本书‖多少钱?
这件衣服‖小李的。

非主谓句

分不出主语和谓语的单句叫非主谓句。它由主谓短语以外的短语或单词加句调构成。

动词性非主谓句:由动词语加句调构成。

形容词性非主谓句:由形容词或形容词性短语构成。

名词性非主谓句:由名词或定中短语构成。

叹词句:由叹词构成。

拟声词句:由拟声词构成。

 

Sentence patterns are divided into subject-predicate sentences and non-subject-predicate sentences:

  • Subject-predicate sentences are divided into three categories: verb-predicate sentences, adjective-predicate sentences, and noun-predicate sentences. (Note that some materials on the Internet classify “subject-predicate sentences” as “sentence patterns”. In order to avoid confusion among netizens, it is hereby explained that in the latest version of “Modern Chinese” (Huang Borong), subject-predicate sentences have been removed Out of the “sentence pattern” category, divided into the “sentence pattern” category)
  • Non-subject-predicate sentences are divided into five categories: verbal non-subject-predicate sentences, adjective non-subject-predicate sentences, nominal non-subject-predicate sentences, interjection sentences, and onomatopoeic sentences.

Definition: The sentence pattern is the structure category of the sentence, that is, the category divided according to the configuration pattern of the syntactic components.

The difference between sentence pattern and sentence pattern

Sentence patterns and sentence patterns are class names classified according to structure. The sentence pattern is the upper class name classified according to the characteristics of the whole sentence, and the sentence pattern is the lower class name classified according to the local characteristics of the sentence.

Sentence classification:

Subject-predicate statement
“Ba” sentence
“Bei” sentence
Link predicate
Concurrent sentence
Double object sentence
Existential sentence

Subject-verb sentence

The single sentence composed of the subject and the predicate is called the subject-predicate sentence. From the perspective of the composition of the predicate, it can be divided into the following subcategories:

1. Verb predicate sentence
A sentence in which a verb or a verb phrase serves as a predicate is called a verb-predicate sentence. It can be classified into the following types:

(1) Main + move + guest
The sun slanting west ‖ shines on the whole street.

(2) Main + Action + Complement
The shoulders are worn out.

(3) Main + Action + Complement + Guest
The Three Gorges of the Yangtze River have left many people’s dreams.

(4) Main + State + Movement
We’ve discussed it before.

(5) Main + State + Movement + Complement
He only agreed.

(6) Main + State + Action + Complement + Guest
I went to Beijing recently.

2. Adjective predicate sentence
Sentences that use adjectives or adjective phrases as predicates are called adjective predicates.

The footsteps of spring are near.
The weather is clear.
The late sea breeze is fresh and cool.

3. Noun predicate sentence
Sentences that use nominal words as predicates are called noun-predicated sentences.

Tomorrow‖National Day.
How much is this book?
This dress is from Xiao Li.

Non-subject-predicate sentence

A single sentence that cannot distinguish between the subject and the predicate is called a non-subject-predicate sentence. It is composed of phrases or words other than subject-predicate phrases plus sentence tone.

Verb non-subject-predicate sentence: It is composed of verbs and sentences.

Adjective non-subject-predicate sentence: It is composed of adjectives or adjective phrases.

Nominal non-subject-predicate sentence: It is composed of nouns or definite middle phrases.

Interjection sentence: It is composed of interjection.

Onomatopoeia: It consists of onomatopoeia.