中文陈述句的定义和分类 Definition and Classification of Chinese Declarative Sentences

陈述句是一种叙事、描写、说明、议论性的句子,它给听话人或读者以信息,一般应包括新的信息。在非对话中,陈述句出现的数量最多。在对话中,当一个人连续说一段话时,也可以有陈述句。陈述句又可以分为几类,我们称作语体。主要有叙述体、描写体、说明体、论说体。

Declarative sentence is a narrative, descriptive, explanatory, and argumentative sentence, which is intended for listeners or readers. In terms of information, it should generally include new information. In non-dialogue, the declarative sentence appears the most many. In a dialogue, when a person speaks a paragraph continuously, there can also be declarative sentences. Declarative sentences can be divided into several categories, which we call styles. There are mainly narrative, descriptive, explanatory and argumentative.

(一)叙述体

叙述体是叙述动作行为和事件进行发展的句子。在叙述体中,总有一个表示动作行为、事件进行的时间词语,这是与描写体、说明体、议论体不同的。例如:

1第二天 ,他们就坐飞机从北京去上海了。
2他刚 想欠起身去看看讲话的是谁,忽然小李一蹦一跳地过来了。
3女演员抱着琵琶下车,腰肢扭摆,美目流盼,高跟鞋嘎嘎几声,便消失在书场的珠帘里。(时间词语在上文)
4天黑以后 ,他才从学校回到家。进门以后 ,他先打开灯,然后放下手里的书包开始做饭。
5她说够了,这时 屋里顿时安静下来。 6卢嘉川的神色突然严肃起来。(上文有时间词语)

叙述体和非叙述体(描写体、说明体、议论体)最重要的区别是所 叙述的动作行为、事件有时间性,在时间中进行、发展。如例2先 是“(他)想欠起身去看看讲话的是谁”,然后是“小李一蹦一跳地过来 了”。例3“女演员”先是“抱着琵琶下车”,然后是“腰肢扭摆,美目流 盼”,最后是“高跟鞋嘎嘎几声,便消失在书场的珠帘里”。例4“他”先 是“从学校回到家”,然后是“进门”,再后是“打开灯”,最后是“放下手里 的书包开始做饭”。

小说、童话、故事、通讯报道等体裁中,叙述体的句子出现得最多。叙述体中出现动词谓语句、固定短语也最多,也有形容词谓语句。与其他语体相比,叙述体中出现的语法现象类别最多、最复杂。

(二)描写体

描写体描摹人或物体的外貌形状、性质特征等。描写体中常出现形 容词谓语句、带“得”的情态补语、固定短语、存现句、动态助 词“着”等,也可以用动词短语、主谓短语。例如:

1天山的蘑菇又大又肥厚,鲜嫩无比。
2青的萝卜,紫的茄子,红的辣椒,又红又黄的西红柿,真是五彩斑斓,耀眼争光。
3被浓云衬托着,大坝好像是一只泊在海里的大军舰,更加雄伟了。
4街道在月光雪影下朦朦胧胧的,像罩上了一层烟雾。
5我家门前有一条小河,河边栽着两行垂柳。小河上架着一座小桥,桥那边是一个小村庄。村庄掩映在红的桃花绿的白杨中。
6她不过二十来岁,头发梳得光光的,身上穿着一件新潮的短衫,下边一条超短裙,脚上的皮鞋的鞋底足有五寸厚。我们这个小山村的人像看西洋镜一样都跑出来看她。

描写体通常是描写静态的事物,没有时间性。

(三)说明体

说明体的作用是说明事物的性质、特点、用途。名词谓语句、“是”字句等系词谓语句、用动态助词“过”的句子等等往往是说明 句。例如:

1一个冰棍一块五。
2新来的英语老师是澳大利亚人。
3他是我妹妹的先生,大兴公司总经理。
4这所房子我已经买下了,(下个月就可以搬进去了)。
5他在非洲住过很多年,很了解那里的风土人情,你请他介绍
吧。

说明体是说明一种情况,一般也没有时间性。

(四)论说体

论说体也叫论证体、议论体,作用是阐述、论证一种观点、看法。例如:

1《现代汉语八百词》指出:“从”能表示过去、现在和将来的时 间起点,“自从”限于表示过去的时间起点。这无疑是非常正确 的。但除此之外,“自从”和“从”还有一些区别。
2这个现象说明了两个事实,一是篇章单位与句法单位的不一致性,二是篇章结构与句法结构的不一致性。

论说体一般也没有时间性。
不同的语体不仅选用的语法结构有所不同,而且句子、语段之间连接的方式也有所不同,这一点在叙述体与非叙述体之间尤为明显。
在实际语言中,即在连续的语流中,往往并不是单纯使用一种语体。比如在小说中,有时叙述、描写、论说会穿插进行。

(1) Narrative

Narratives are sentences that describe the development of actions and events. In the narrative style, there is always a time word that expresses the action and the event, which is different from the description style, explanatory style, and argument style. E.g:

1 The next day, they flew from Beijing to Shanghai.
2 He just wanted to get up to see who was speaking when Xiao Li suddenly came over.
3 The actress got off the car holding the pipa, twisted her waist and looked forward to her beautiful eyes, and disappeared into the bead curtain of the bookstore after a few creaks of her high heels. (Time words above)
After 4 days of darkness, he returned home from school. After entering the door, he turned on the light first, then put down the schoolbag in his hand and started cooking.
5 She said it was enough, and then the room suddenly became quiet. 6 Lu Jiachuan’s expression suddenly became serious. (There are time words above)

The most important difference between narrative and non-narrative (descriptive, explanatory, and argumentative) is that the actions and events described have timeliness, and progress and develop in time. As in Example 2, it is first “(he) wants to get up to see who is speaking”, and then “Xiao Li came here bouncely”. Example 3 “Actress” first “holds the pipa and get off the car”, then “the waist is twisted, beautiful eyes look forward”, and finally “the high-heeled shoes quack and disappear in the bead curtain”. Example 4 “He” first “come home from school”, then “enter the door”, then “turn on the light”, and finally “put down the schoolbag in his hand and start cooking”.

In novels, fairy tales, stories, newsletters and other genres, narrative sentences appear the most. Verb-predicate sentences and fixed phrases appear most in the narrative body, and there are also adjective-predicate sentences. Compared with other styles, the types of grammatical phenomena appearing in the narrative style are the most and the most complex.

(2) Descriptive

Descriptive body describes the appearance, shape, nature and characteristics of people or objects. Descriptive forms often appear in form-verb predicates, modal complements with “得”, fixed phrases, existing sentences, and dynamic auxiliary words “着”. Verb phrases and subject-predicate phrases can also be used. E.g:

1 Tianshan mushrooms are large, plump, and extremely tender.
2 Green radishes, purple eggplants, red peppers, and red and yellow tomatoes are really colorful and dazzling.
3 Set off by thick clouds, the dam seems to be a large warship moored in the sea, making it even more majestic.
4 The street is hazy under the moonlight and snow shadow, and the image is covered with a layer of smoke.
5 There is a small river in front of my house with two rows of weeping willows planted by the river. There is a small bridge over the small river, and on the other side of the bridge is a small village. The village is hidden among the red, peach blossoms and green aspens.
6 She is only in her twenties, her hair is combed, she is wearing a trendy blouse, a short skirt underneath, and the soles of leather shoes on her feet are five inches thick. People in our small village ran out to see her like a diorama.

Descriptive body usually describes static things without timeliness.

(3) Description

The role of the explanatory body is to explain the nature, characteristics, and uses of things. Noun-predicate sentences, “being” sentence and other verbal predicate sentences, sentences with dynamic auxiliary word “guo”, etc. are often explanatory sentences. E.g:

1 A popsicle is a piece of five.
2The new English teacher is Australian.
3He is my sister’s husband, the general manager of Daxing Company.
4I have bought this house (I can move in next month).
5He has lived in Africa for many years, and he knows the customs and customs there. Please invite him to introduce
Right.

The explanatory body is to describe a situation, and generally has no timeliness.

(4) Argumentation

Argumentation style is also called argumentation style and argumentation style. Its function is to explain and demonstrate a viewpoint or opinion. E.g:

1 The “Eight Hundred Words of Modern Chinese” pointed out: “Cong” can represent the starting point of time in the past, present and future, and “Since” is limited to the starting point of time in the past. This is undoubtedly very correct. But in addition, there are some differences between “Since” and “From”.
2 This phenomenon illustrates two facts, one is the inconsistency between the text unit and the syntactic unit, and the other is the inconsistency between the text structure and the syntactic structure.

Discourse is generally not temporal.
Different styles not only use different grammatical structures, but also the ways in which sentences and segments are connected. This is particularly obvious between narrative and non-narrative.
In actual language, that is, in a continuous stream, it is often not a simple style. For example, in a novel, sometimes narration, description, and argumentation are interspersed.