在中文句子中添加时间和地点的规则 Rules for adding time and place in Chinese|汉语学习

添加时间和地点的直接规则

在汉语中,某事发生、正在发生或将要发生的时间出现在句首或紧接主语之后。

Straightforward rules for adding time and place

In Chinese, the time at which something happened, is happening, or will happen appears at the beginning of the sentence or immediately following the subject.

请注意,下面第一句话中,中国时间词”昨天”昨日”和英语”昨日”都出现在句子的开头。然而,在第二个例子中,中文时间词出现在主语(他tā)之后,而英文时间词出现在句子的末尾。

昨天他去了超市。 Zuótiān tā qùle chāoshì. 昨天,他去了超市。
他昨天去了超市。 Tā zuótiān qùle chāoshì. 他昨天去了超市。

汉语中的地点词一般也需要与英语不同的词序。当描述某事发生的地点时,您通常需要构建一个以在(zài)开头的短语。在(zài)开头的短语应该放在时间词(如果有的话)之后,动词之前。这可能会让英语使用者感到困惑,因为在英语中,位置词通常在动词之后(而不是之前)。

这里有一个例子。

我在桂林工作。 Wǒ zài Guìlín gōngzuò. 我在桂林工作。
我昨天在家看书。 Wǒ zuótiān zàijiā kànshū. 昨天我在家里看书。

请记住,这个规则有一些例外。这些例外发生在某些用来指代方向性运动的动词上,比如走(zǒu,”走”)或与特定地点有关的动词,比如停(tíng,”停”)和住(zhù,”住”)。这些动词可以使用位置补语,也就是在动词后面的(zài)短语。

例如:

我住在桂林。 Wǒ zhù zài Guìlín. 我住在桂林。

取位置补语的动词是例外,而不是常规。作为初学者,最安全的做法是把位置放在动词之前,因为这是最常见的词序。

– English Version –

Note that in the first sentence below, the Chinese time word “昨天” (or zuótiān in pinyin) and English “yesterday” both appear at the beginning of the sentence. In the second example, however, the Chinese time word appears after the subject (他 tā), whereas the English time word appears at the end of the sentence:

昨天他去了超市。 Zuótiān tā qùle chāoshì. Yesterday, he went to the supermarket.
他昨天去了超市。 Tā zuótiān qùle chāoshì. He went to the supermarket yesterday.

Location words in Chinese also generally require a word order that differs from English. When describing where something happened, you’ll usually need to construct a phrase beginning with 在 (zài). Your 在 (zài) phrase should come after time words (if any) and before the verb. This can be confusing for English speakers since location words usually come after (not before) the verb in English.

Here’s an example:

我在桂林工作。 Wǒ zài Guìlín gōngzuò. I work in Guilin.
我昨天在家看书。 Wǒ zuótiān zàijiā kànshū. I read books at home yesterday.

Keep in mind that there are some exceptions to this rule. These exceptions happen with certain verbs that are used to refer to directional motion, like 走 (zǒu, “to walk”) or verbs that relate to a specific location like 停 (tíng, “to stop”) and 住 (zhù, “to live”). These verbs are allowed to take location complements, which are essentially 在 (zài) phrases that come after the verb.

For example:

我住在桂林。 Wǒ zhù zài Guìlín. I live in Guilin.

Verbs that take location complements are exceptions, not the rule. As a beginner, the safest thing to do is to place location before the verb since this is the most common word order.