Drinks , 饮料 , yǐn liào 。
Fruit Juice , 果汁 , guǒ zhī 。
Milk , 牛奶 , niú nǎi 。
Coke , 可乐 , kě lè 。
Coffee , 咖啡 , kā fēi 。
Tea , 茶 , chá 。
Beverages can generally be divided into alcoholic beverages and non-alcoholic beverages. Non-alcoholic beverages are also called soft drinks. Alcoholic beverages refer to beverages with an ethanol (alcohol) content of 0.5-65% (v/v) for people to drink, including various fermented wines, distilled wines and mixed wines. Non-alcoholic beverages refer to liquid foods with an alcohol content of less than 0.5% (v/v) and whose main purpose is to supplement human water, including solid beverages.
The earliest beverage production was grain brewing. Ancient Chinese winemaking technology has reached a very high level. There are records of tea and tea plant cultivation in the dictionary “Er Ya” of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in 350 BC.
Cocoa is native to tropical regions of South America. Cacao trees were cultivated 3,000 years ago. The Indians used cocoa to make chocolate drinks. Columbus brought cocoa beans back to Europe in 1502, and cocoa beverages became popular in Europe in the early 18th century. The industrial production of grape juice began in Britain in 1869, and the principle of pasteurization was used to preserve the juice for the first time. As a result, the production of vegetable juice has gradually formed an industrial scale. Soda production originated in Europe. In 1772, Britain had published books to guide the production of soda, and the production of carbonated drinks, mainly soda, had begun to take shape. Later, a variety of cola-type beverages appeared, and they had become popular all over the world in the 1980s. In the middle of the 19th century, L. Pasteur developed a processing method to kill harmful microorganisms in milk (pasteurization), and from then on the industrial processing of fresh milk.
The world beverage industry has reached a considerable production scale since the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s, the beverage industry began large-scale concentrated production and high-speed development. Mineral water, carbonated beverages, fruit juices, vegetable juices, milk, beer and wine have all formed large-scale and automated production systems. There are many varieties of beverages, which are divided into two categories: alcoholic beverages and non-alcoholic beverages according to the production process. Alcoholic beverages are made from sorghum, barley, rice or fruits, which are fermented or re-distilled, including various wines and blended wines. Coarse grain beverages are made of whole grains as raw materials, which are processed through strict processing and multi-process sterilization. Many varieties such as millet milk, red bean milk, mung bean milk, and black soybean milk have appeared one after another. Non-alcoholic beverages are made from fruits, vegetables, plant roots, stems, leaves, flowers or animal milk as raw materials, and processed by pressing or dipping and extracting the juice, including soft drinks, hot drinks and milk.
Tea as a family beverage, its production, marketing and tea drinking have become popular in the Tang Dynasty. Tea from all over the world is imported from China. Tea has become a popular beverage in Japan in the 13th century, and the tea ceremony continues to spread. Coffee originated in Ethiopia, and the first artificially cultivated variety was arabica coffee. Later it was introduced into many countries. In 1878, J. Sanborn and C. Chase first used tinplate canned coffee and gradually became a popular beverage.