汉字教学【饮料】🍹Write “Drinks” in Chinese – Fruit Juice果汁/Milk牛奶/Coke可乐/Coffee咖啡/Tea茶

Drinks , 饮料 , yǐn liào 。
Fruit Juice , 果汁 , guǒ zhī 。
Milk , 牛奶 , niú nǎi 。
Coke , 可乐 , kě lè 。
Coffee , 咖啡 , kā fēi 。
Tea , 茶 , chá 。

饮料一般可分为含酒精饮料和无酒精饮料,无酒精饮料又称软饮料。酒精饮料系指供人们饮用且乙醇(酒精)含量在百分之0.5—65(v/v)的饮料,包括各种发酵酒、蒸馏酒及配制酒。无酒精饮料是指酒精含量小于百分之0.5(v/v),以补充人体水分为主要目的的流质食品,包括固体饮料。

最早的饮料生产是谷物造酒。中国古代的酿酒技术已有相当高的水平。公元前350年的中国东周辞书《尔雅》中已有茶和茶树栽培的记载着。

可可原产南美洲热带地区。3000年前已有人工栽培可可树。印第安人用可可制作巧克力饮料。1502年哥伦布将可可豆带回欧洲,18世纪初可可饮料开始风靡欧洲。1869年英国开始葡萄汁的工业生产,第一次应用巴氏杀菌原理保藏果汁。后果蔬汁的生产逐渐形成工业化规模。汽水生产起源于欧洲。1772年英国已出版了指导汽水生产的书籍,以汽水为主的碳酸饮料生产已初具规模。后又出现了多种可乐型饮料,至20世纪80年代已风靡全球。19世纪中叶,L.巴斯德发展了杀灭牛奶中有害微生物的加工方法(巴氏杀菌),从此开始了鲜奶的工业加工。

世界饮料工业从20世纪初起已达到相当大的生产规模。60年代以后,饮料工业开始大规模集中生产和高速度发展。矿泉水、碳酸饮料、果汁、蔬菜汁、奶、啤酒和葡萄酒等都已形成大规模和自动化生产体系。饮料品种繁多,按生产工艺分为酒精饮料和非酒精饮料两大类。酒精饮料是以高粱、大麦、稻米或水果等为原料,经发酵酿成或再经蒸馏而成,包括各种酒和调配酒。粗粮饮料是以五谷杂粮为原料,经过严格加工,多道程序杀菌后加工而成,相继出现小米乳、红豆乳、绿豆乳、黑豆乳等多个品种。非酒精饮料是以水果、蔬菜、植物的根、茎、叶、花或动物的乳汁等为原料,经压榨或浸渍抽提等方法取汁后加工而成,包括软饮料、热饮料和乳。

茶作为一种家庭饮料,其产销和饮茶之风在唐代已盛行。世界各国的茶都是从中国引进的。13世纪茶在日本已成为流行的饮料,茶道流传不息。咖啡起源于埃塞俄比亚,最早被人工栽培的品种是阿拉伯小果咖啡。后传入多个国家 。1878年J.桑伯恩和C.蔡斯首先采用马口铁罐装咖啡,逐渐成为一种流行饮料。

Beverages can generally be divided into alcoholic beverages and non-alcoholic beverages. Non-alcoholic beverages are also called soft drinks. Alcoholic beverages refer to beverages with an ethanol (alcohol) content of 0.5-65% (v/v) for people to drink, including various fermented wines, distilled wines and mixed wines. Non-alcoholic beverages refer to liquid foods with an alcohol content of less than 0.5% (v/v) and whose main purpose is to supplement human water, including solid beverages.

The earliest beverage production was grain brewing. Ancient Chinese winemaking technology has reached a very high level. There are records of tea and tea plant cultivation in the dictionary “Er Ya” of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in 350 BC.

Cocoa is native to tropical regions of South America. Cacao trees were cultivated 3,000 years ago. The Indians used cocoa to make chocolate drinks. Columbus brought cocoa beans back to Europe in 1502, and cocoa beverages became popular in Europe in the early 18th century. The industrial production of grape juice began in Britain in 1869, and the principle of pasteurization was used to preserve the juice for the first time. As a result, the production of vegetable juice has gradually formed an industrial scale. Soda production originated in Europe. In 1772, Britain had published books to guide the production of soda, and the production of carbonated drinks, mainly soda, had begun to take shape. Later, a variety of cola-type beverages appeared, and they had become popular all over the world in the 1980s. In the middle of the 19th century, L. Pasteur developed a processing method to kill harmful microorganisms in milk (pasteurization), and from then on the industrial processing of fresh milk.

The world beverage industry has reached a considerable production scale since the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s, the beverage industry began large-scale concentrated production and high-speed development. Mineral water, carbonated beverages, fruit juices, vegetable juices, milk, beer and wine have all formed large-scale and automated production systems. There are many varieties of beverages, which are divided into two categories: alcoholic beverages and non-alcoholic beverages according to the production process. Alcoholic beverages are made from sorghum, barley, rice or fruits, which are fermented or re-distilled, including various wines and blended wines. Coarse grain beverages are made of whole grains as raw materials, which are processed through strict processing and multi-process sterilization. Many varieties such as millet milk, red bean milk, mung bean milk, and black soybean milk have appeared one after another. Non-alcoholic beverages are made from fruits, vegetables, plant roots, stems, leaves, flowers or animal milk as raw materials, and processed by pressing or dipping and extracting the juice, including soft drinks, hot drinks and milk.

Tea as a family beverage, its production, marketing and tea drinking have become popular in the Tang Dynasty. Tea from all over the world is imported from China. Tea has become a popular beverage in Japan in the 13th century, and the tea ceremony continues to spread. Coffee originated in Ethiopia, and the first artificially cultivated variety was arabica coffee. Later it was introduced into many countries. In 1878, J. Sanborn and C. Chase first used tinplate canned coffee and gradually became a popular beverage.