Planets , 行星 , xíng xīng 。
Mercury , 水星 , shuǐ xīng 。
Venus , 金星 , jīn xīng 。
Earth , 地球 , dì qiú 。
Mars , 火星 , huǒ xīng 。
Jupiter , 木星 , mù xīng 。
Saturn , 土星 , tǔ xīng 。
Uranus , 天王星 , tiān wáng xīng 。
Neptune , 海王星 , hǎi wáng xīng 。
Ancient Chinese Astronomy
China is one of the earliest and fastest-growing countries in astronomy in the world. It has a large amount of observational data, but has not conducted in-depth research, and has not put forward any theory on astrophysics. Astronomy is also one of the four most developed natural sciences in ancient China. Others include agriculture, medicine, and mathematics. Astronomy has repeatedly innovative and excellent calendars, enviable inventions and creations, and insightful views of the universe. It has developed in the world of astronomy. In history, all occupy an important position.
Ancient Chinese astronomy began to sprout from primitive society. In the 24th century BC, during Emperor Yao’s time, a full-time astronomical officer was established to specialize in “viewing time.” As early as the Yangshao culture period, people portrayed the image of the radiant sun, and then recorded the changes on the sun frequently, depicting the sunspots on the edge of the sun that were as small as projectiles and in oblique shapes.
Before the 16th century AD, the development of astronomy in Europe had been very slow, and it was almost at a standstill during the more than 1,000 years from the 2nd to the 16th century. During this period, Chinese astronomy has developed steadily and achieved brilliant achievements. The achievements of ancient Chinese astronomy can be roughly summarized into three aspects, namely: astronomical observation, instrument production and calendar editing. But theories such as astrophysics have no contribution.
The earliest observation of astronomical phenomena in China can be traced back thousands of years. Whether it is the sun, moon, planets, comets, novae, stars, as well as rare astronomical phenomena such as solar and lunar eclipses, sunspots, prominences, meteor showers, etc., there are long and rich records. Observe carefully, record accurately, and describe in detail. The level is so high that it surprises people today. These records still have high scientific value to this day. There are abundant records of astronomical phenomena in the oracle bone inscriptions from Yin Ruins unearthed in Anyang, Henan, China. This shows that as early as the 14th century BC, the astronomy of our ancestors was already very developed. It is universally recognized that China has the earliest and most complete astronomical record in the world. China is the most accurate observer of astronomical phenomena and the best preserver of records before the European Renaissance.
Ancient China also made outstanding contributions to the creation of astronomical instruments, creatively designing and manufacturing many kinds of exquisite observation and measuring instruments. The oldest and simplest astronomical instrument in China is Tugui, also called Guibiao. It is used to measure the length of the sun’s shadow. When did it first exist, it is impossible to verify it.
In addition, Luoxiahong in the Western Han Dynasty remodeled the armillary sphere, the main instrument for measuring the position of celestial bodies in ancient China, which has been improved in almost all ages. Zhang Heng of the Eastern Han Dynasty created the world’s first chaotic image that used water conservancy as a power source. Guo Shoujing in the Yuan Dynasty successively created and improved more than 10 astronomical instruments, such as Jianyi, Gaoyuan, Yangyi and so on.