学写汉字【8大行星】How to Write “Planets” in Chinese|Learn Chinese Vocabulary & Characters

Planets , 行星 , xíng xīng 。
Mercury , 水星 , shuǐ xīng 。
Venus , 金星 , jīn xīng 。
Earth , 地球 , dì qiú 。
Mars , 火星 , huǒ xīng 。
Jupiter , 木星 , mù xīng 。
Saturn , 土星 , tǔ xīng 。
Uranus , 天王星 , tiān wáng xīng 。
Neptune , 海王星 , hǎi wáng xīng 。

中国古代天文学

中国是世界上天文学起步最早、发展最快的国家之一,有大量观测资料,但并未有很深入的研究,对于天体物理也并未提出任何理论。天文学也是中国古代最发达的四门自然科学之一,其他包括农学、医学和数学,天文学方面屡有革新的优良历法、令人惊羡的发明创造、卓有见识的宇宙观等,在世界天文学发展史上,无不占据重要的地位。

萌芽

中国古代天文学从原始社会就开始萌芽了。公元前24世纪的尧帝时代,就设立了专职的天文官,专门从事“观象授时”。早在仰韶文化时期,人们就描绘了光芒四射的太阳形象,进而对太阳上的变化也屡有记载,描绘出太阳边缘有大小如同弹丸、成倾斜形状的太阳黑子。

发展

公元16世纪前,天文学在欧洲的发展一直很缓慢,在从2世纪到16世纪的1000多年中,更是几乎处于停滞状态。在此期间,中国天文学得到了稳步的发展,取得了辉煌的成就。中国古代天文学的成就大体可归纳为三个方面,即:天象观察、仪器制作和编订历法。但天体物理等理论没有任何贡献。

天象观察

中国最早的天象观察,可以追溯到好几千年以前。无论是对太阳、月亮、行星、彗星、新星、恒星,以及日食和月食、太阳黑子、日珥、流星雨等罕见天象,都有着悠久而丰富的记载,观察仔细、记录精确、描述详尽、其水平之高,达到使今人惊讶的程度,这些记载至今仍具有很高的科学价值。在中国河南安阳出土的殷墟甲骨文中,已有丰富的天文象现的记载。这表明远在公元前14世纪时,我们祖先的天文学已很发达了。举世公认,中国有世界上最早最完整的天象记载。中国是欧洲文艺复兴以前天文现象最精确的观测者和记录的最好保存者。

天文仪器

中国古代在创制天文仪器方面,也做出了杰出的贡献,创造性地设计和制造了许多种精巧的观察和测量仪器。中国最古老、最简单的天文仪器是土圭,也叫圭表。它是用来度量日影长短的,它最初是从什么时候开始有的,已无从考证。

此外,西汉的落下闳改制了浑仪,这种中国古代测量天体位置的主要仪器,几乎历代都有改进。东汉的张衡创制了世界上第一架利用水利作为动力的浑象。元代的郭守敬先后创制和改进了10多种天文仪器,如简仪、高表、仰仪等。

Ancient Chinese Astronomy

China is one of the earliest and fastest-growing countries in astronomy in the world. It has a large amount of observational data, but has not conducted in-depth research, and has not put forward any theory on astrophysics. Astronomy is also one of the four most developed natural sciences in ancient China. Others include agriculture, medicine, and mathematics. Astronomy has repeatedly innovative and excellent calendars, enviable inventions and creations, and insightful views of the universe. It has developed in the world of astronomy. In history, all occupy an important position.

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Ancient Chinese astronomy began to sprout from primitive society. In the 24th century BC, during Emperor Yao’s time, a full-time astronomical officer was established to specialize in “viewing time.” As early as the Yangshao culture period, people portrayed the image of the radiant sun, and then recorded the changes on the sun frequently, depicting the sunspots on the edge of the sun that were as small as projectiles and in oblique shapes.

Development

Before the 16th century AD, the development of astronomy in Europe had been very slow, and it was almost at a standstill during the more than 1,000 years from the 2nd to the 16th century. During this period, Chinese astronomy has developed steadily and achieved brilliant achievements. The achievements of ancient Chinese astronomy can be roughly summarized into three aspects, namely: astronomical observation, instrument production and calendar editing. But theories such as astrophysics have no contribution.

Astronomical observation

The earliest observation of astronomical phenomena in China can be traced back thousands of years. Whether it is the sun, moon, planets, comets, novae, stars, as well as rare astronomical phenomena such as solar and lunar eclipses, sunspots, prominences, meteor showers, etc., there are long and rich records. Observe carefully, record accurately, and describe in detail. The level is so high that it surprises people today. These records still have high scientific value to this day. There are abundant records of astronomical phenomena in the oracle bone inscriptions from Yin Ruins unearthed in Anyang, Henan, China. This shows that as early as the 14th century BC, the astronomy of our ancestors was already very developed. It is universally recognized that China has the earliest and most complete astronomical record in the world. China is the most accurate observer of astronomical phenomena and the best preserver of records before the European Renaissance.

Astronomical Instruments

Ancient China also made outstanding contributions to the creation of astronomical instruments, creatively designing and manufacturing many kinds of exquisite observation and measuring instruments. The oldest and simplest astronomical instrument in China is Tugui, also called Guibiao. It is used to measure the length of the sun’s shadow. When did it first exist, it is impossible to verify it.

In addition, Luoxiahong in the Western Han Dynasty remodeled the armillary sphere, the main instrument for measuring the position of celestial bodies in ancient China, which has been improved in almost all ages. Zhang Heng of the Eastern Han Dynasty created the world’s first chaotic image that used water conservancy as a power source. Guo Shoujing in the Yuan Dynasty successively created and improved more than 10 astronomical instruments, such as Jianyi, Gaoyuan, Yangyi and so on.