学写汉字【春节快乐】Write “Happy Chinese New Year” in Chinese 中文祝贺语

春节,为以传统历法计算之华夏新年,即一年之岁首、年节,是中国与华人地区及世界各地汉族社会过的传统新年,又称新春、正旦、正月朔日;口头上亦称为过新年、过年、度岁、庆新春、贺新岁,属于汉族四大传统节日之首。

The Spring Festival is the Chinese New Year calculated by the traditional calendar, that is, the beginning of the year and the new year. It is a traditional New Year celebrated in China, Chinese areas and Han communities around the world. It is also known as the New Year, Zhengdan, and New Year of the New Year; it is also called verbally. Celebrating the New Year, celebrating the New Year, celebrating the New Year, and celebrating the new year are the first of the four traditional festivals of the Han nationality.

从明代开始,华夏新年节庆一般要到正月十五日元宵节之后才正式结束活动,有些地方的新年庆祝活动甚至到整个正月完结为止。辛亥革命后,官方纪年标准由夏历改为西历。华夏新年与朝鲜新年、越南新年、琉球新年和明治维新前的日本新年多数为同一日。

Beginning in the Ming Dynasty, the Chinese New Year celebrations generally did not officially end until the fifteen-yen Lantern Festival on the first month. In some places, the New Year celebrations even ended the entire first month. After the Revolution of 1911, the official date of the year was changed from the Xia calendar to the Western calendar. Chinese New Year is mostly the same day as Korean New Year, Vietnamese New Year, Ryukyu New Year, and Japanese New Year before the Meiji Restoration.

习俗

红包

春节期间,长辈会给予晚辈一些礼金,以红色信封包着,称“压岁钱”,通称为「红包」(粤语作「利市」)。有经济能力的子孙,也会给予长辈红包。红包的金额不等:在中国大陆,人民币一百元到一万多元不等;在台湾,新台币六百元至六千元,都相当普遍。有些人讲究红包的金额,必须为偶数,有别于在葬礼期间给予的奇数金额的“帛金”。数字“八”取其谐音“发”,常有幸运的意思,因此在美国,8美元的红包很常见。数字“六”取其谐音“溜”,也有在来年顺顺利利的幸运意味。数字“四”因其谐音“死”,所以包含着霉运。有些红包会装着巧克力硬币。

索讨红包的行为通常被称为“讨红包”,粤语称为“逗利市”。广东习俗,红包通常由已婚夫妇给予家庭中未婚的晚辈。出于礼貌和习俗,晚辈会祝愿长辈在来年幸福、健康和好运。已婚人士也不会拒绝这样的要求,因为这将意味着发红包的人来年会有好运。有些地区的人,会存放红包在枕头底下,直至七日过后才会开封。枕着红包睡七日,象征着好运和财富。

在现今香港、台湾,有时一些雇主也会给东南亚籍帮佣发红包作为奖励,但这样做是否适合仍存在争议。

礼物交换

除了红包,朋友和亲戚间也会交换一些小礼物(一般为食物或甜食)。探亲访友时通常会带上礼物。常见的礼物包括水果(橘子等)、糕点、饼干、巧克力和糖果。但有些认为是禁忌的东西不能给,如时钟(谐音“送终”)、绿帽子(象征妻子不贞)、鞋(谐音“邪”、「唉」;在台湾意为「远别」)、梨(谐音“离”)、手帕(有分离之意)、伞(谐音“散”)以及任何尖锐的物体(如象征着关系破裂的剪刀和小刀)。

集市

新年来临之际的集市或市场会贩售新年有关商品,如鲜花、玩具、服装甚至烟花,方便人们买礼物用来走亲访友或居家装饰。在一些地方,购买年花跟西方购买圣诞树的传统无甚不同。

贺年歌

在粤语地区,以调寄刘明源创作的经典传统民乐《喜洋洋》的《新春颂献》较为流行,后来亦有香港音乐人谱写其他贺年歌,如《财神到》、《欢乐年年》、《祝福你》等。亦有改篇自外国歌曲者,如《新年好》,旋律来自美国民歌《我亲爱的克莱门汀》。

服装

农历新年期间穿的服装主要是红色或是其他鲜艳的颜色,因为人们认为红色能辟邪。此外,人们从头到脚都穿新衣服,象征着新开始。亦有人穿着汉服等华夏文化特色服装。

全家福

亲族聚集在一起照全家福是重要仪式。照片会在房子的大厅或是屋外拍摄,家族里地位最高的长者会坐在中央。

饮食

年糕,取「年年高升」之意。广东地区和苏浙地区有所不同。
团圆饭 ,年三十晚一家人聚首的饭局。
包饺子:中国北方省份的过年风俗,饺子形状像元宝,而且宋朝银票叫交子,所以人们认为过年包饺子会带来财气。
春卷,为了迎新春而卷起食材做成的食物,象征喜气的到来。
汤圆,取团圆之意,江淮、江浙及华南等地方在除夕或者大年初一,以及元宵节必备的食品。
腊八粥、腊八醋、腊八蒜。
捞起鱼生:南洋风俗,流行于星马一带,取「风生水起」之意。
鱼:取「年年有余」之意。
春饼:又名咬春。
萝卜:是黑龙江地区立春习俗之一,代表吉祥、祥和之意。
年粽:是四川、江苏等中国南方地区的粽子,俗称年粽。
火锅、姜母鸭、烧酒鸡:是台湾地方习俗之一,象征团圆。

custom

Red envelope

During the Spring Festival, the elders will give some gifts to the younger generations, wrapped in red envelopes, called “new year money”, commonly known as “red envelopes” (“Lishi” in Cantonese). Children and grandchildren with financial ability will also give red envelopes to their elders. The amount of red envelopes varies: in mainland China, RMB 100 to more than 10,000 yuan; in Taiwan, NT$600 to 6,000 are quite common. Some people pay attention to the red envelope amount, which must be an even number, which is different from the odd amount of “silk gold” given during the funeral. The number “eight” takes its homonym “fa”, which often means lucky. Therefore, in the United States, red envelopes of $8 are very common. The number “six” takes its homophonic “slip”, which also means luck in the coming year. The number “four” contains bad luck because of its homophonic “dead”. Some red packets will contain chocolate coins.

The act of asking for red envelopes is usually called “discussing red envelopes”, and in Cantonese it is called “dulishi”. According to Guangdong custom, red envelopes are usually given to unmarried younger generations in the family by married couples. Out of courtesy and custom, the younger generations will wish their elders happiness, health and good luck in the coming year. Married people will not refuse such a request, because it will mean that those who give red envelopes will have good luck in the coming year. People in some areas store the red envelopes under their pillows and will not open them until seven days have passed. Sleeping for seven days with a red envelope on the pillow symbolizes good luck and wealth.

In Hong Kong and Taiwan nowadays, sometimes some employers will also give red envelopes to Southeast Asian domestic helpers as rewards, but whether this is appropriate is still controversial.

Gift exchange

In addition to red envelopes, friends and relatives also exchange small gifts (usually food or sweets). Gifts are usually brought when visiting relatives and friends. Common gifts include fruits (oranges, etc.), pastries, biscuits, chocolates and candies. But some things that are considered taboo cannot be given, such as the clock (homonymous “send the end”), green hat (symbolizes the infidelity of the wife), shoes (the homophonic “xie”, “oh”; in Taiwan means “far farewell”), pear (homonymous “Li”), handkerchiefs (meaning separation), umbrellas (homonymous “dispersion”), and any sharp objects (such as scissors and knives that symbolize a broken relationship).

market

Fairs or markets on the occasion of the New Year will sell New Year-related goods, such as flowers, toys, clothing and even fireworks, so that people can buy gifts to visit relatives and friends or decorate their homes. In some places, buying new year flowers is not very different from the Western tradition of buying Christmas trees.

New Year Song

In the Cantonese-speaking regions, “New Year’s Songs”, which is the classic traditional folk music “Happy New Year” created by Liu Mingyuan, is more popular. Later, Hong Kong musicians also composed other New Year songs, such as “The God of Wealth”, “Happy New Year”, and “Blessings” wait. There are also adaptations from foreign songs, such as “Happy New Year”, and the melody comes from the American folk song “My Dear Clementine”.

clothing

The costumes worn during the Lunar New Year are mainly red or other bright colors, because people think red can ward off evil spirits. In addition, people wear new clothes from head to toe, symbolizing a new beginning. Some people are also wearing Hanfu and other Chinese cultural characteristic costumes.

Family portrait

It is an important ceremony for relatives to gather together to take a family portrait. The photos will be taken in the lobby or outside of the house, with the highest-ranking elder in the family sitting in the center.

diet

Nian Gao means “prosperity every year”. The Guangdong region is different from the Jiangsu and Zhejiang regions.
Reunion dinner, a dinner where the whole family gathers together on the night of New Year’s Eve.
Making dumplings: A Chinese New Year custom in northern provinces. Dumplings are shaped like ingots, and the Song Dynasty silver bill is called Jiaozi, so people think that making dumplings for the New Year will bring wealth.
Spring rolls are food made by rolling up ingredients to welcome the New Year, symbolizing the arrival of joy.
Tangyuan, which means reunion, is a must-have food for New Year’s Eve or New Year’s Day and Lantern Festival in Jianghuai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Southern China.
Laba porridge, laba vinegar, laba garlic.
Laoqi Yusheng: A South Sea custom, popular in the area of ​​Singapore and Horses, and it means “the wind engenders the water.”
Fish: Take the meaning of “surplus year after year”.
Chunbing: also known as biting spring.
Turnip: It is one of the customs of the beginning of spring in Heilongjiang, representing auspiciousness and harmony.
Nian Zong: It is a rice dumpling in southern China such as Sichuan and Jiangsu, commonly known as Nian Zong.
Hot pot, ginger duck, soju chicken: one of the local customs in Taiwan, symbolizing reunion.