【中文书法入门】Introduction to Chinese Calligraphy 学写10个高频汉字 – 正楷vs行书

中国书法是汉字的书写艺术,也是东亚书法的代表。所以以文字为基准的角度看,中国书法是一种很独特的视觉艺术,但是这种独特性并不妨碍不认识中文字体的人欣赏中国书法。汉字是中国书法中的重要因素,因为中国书法是在中国文化里产生、发展起来的,而文字是中国文化的基本要素之一。以文字为依托,是中国书法区别于其他种类书法的主要标示。

Chinese calligraphy is the art of writing Chinese characters, and it is also a representative of East Asian calligraphy. So from the perspective of text, Chinese calligraphy is a very unique visual art, but this uniqueness does not prevent people who do not know Chinese fonts from appreciating Chinese calligraphy. Chinese characters are an important factor in Chinese calligraphy, because Chinese calligraphy was produced and developed in Chinese culture, and characters are one of the basic elements of Chinese culture. Relying on words is the main mark that distinguishes Chinese calligraphy from other types of calligraphy.

【中文书法入门】Introduction to Chinese Calligraphy

学用正楷和行书写10个高频汉字 Learn to write 10 high-frequency Chinese characters in regular script and cursive handwriting

de , 的 , of 。
shì , 是 , yes 。
chū , 出 , out 。
fā , 发 , send out 。
shuǐ , 水 , water 。
zài , 在 , in 。
yǒu , 有 , have 。
zhè , 这 , this 。
dì , 地 , ground 。
hǎo , 好 , good 。

书法是中国艺术的重要组成部份。其表现形式是依附于汉字的艺术,而汉字属于表意文字,笔划的组合变化多端,与其他民族的拼音文字相比较,汉字更富于造形性。加上汉字书法不仅有一套完整的笔法(点、横、撇、竖、钩等),更加有一套成熟的审美体系。依循汉字的结构规律,变化组合,就可以表现出千姿百态的书法艺术,创造出不同面貌和情趣的美感。

书法是中国土生土长的艺术,有自身悠久、深厚的传统,是琴棋书画四艺之一。在中国古代,书法具有非常高的参与程度,一般的知识分子都付出不同程度的努力学习书法,产生了数量众多的书法家。中国自从秦汉以来的各个朝代,都相当多的书法作品被创造出来;其中最优秀者成为皇室、贵族和文人最珍贵的收藏品。此外,中国书法有丰富、完整、一脉相承的理论体系,这表明书法在中国古代已是一门很成熟的艺术。

中国书法有非常好的生活基础,很多完美的书法作品是以书信、诗词手稿、碑文、墓志铭、牌匾、屏风、室内装饰品等形式存在的,这些作品大多具有文字内容和书法的艺术美相得益彰的特点。中国书法与中国绘画、篆刻、舞蹈、音乐等艺术形式相互影响。

中国书法受到中国古代当权者和知识分子的重视,具有一定的书法水准是中国古代知识分子的基本素质之一。很多皇帝本人非常重视书法的学习,有的皇帝甚至有很高的水准,是有名的书法家,例如宋徽宗。中国书法直接影响了日本、韩国等地书法的发展,尤其是其中以汉字为书写内容的部分。

书法,是世界上文字的艺术形式,其中「中国书法」,是中国以汉字书体为基础的一种传统的线条的艺术。从广义讲,书法是指语言符号的书写法则。换言之,书法是指按照文字特点及其涵义,以其书体笔法、结构和章法写字,使之成为富有美感的艺术作品。其必备工具是毛笔、墨和中国纸。汉字书法为汉族所创的表现艺术,被誉为:无言的诗,无行的舞;无图的画,无声的乐。

书法被孔子定为「六艺」之一,是古代君子必需具备的技能、技艺。由于古人把读书、识字、写字等量齐观,书法就不再是纯粹的技法,而且等同于学问修养。所以自古以来,中国人就看重书法,把它视为载道的工具、文章的衣冠,也是个人学养的外在表现。中国自有进仕制度以来,便特别注重士子的书法,唐代更明言以「身、言、书、辩」取仕,这种以书法取仕的风气,到明清发展至极致,出现了专用于翰林的「馆阁体」。难怪中国历史上的名吏,都是饱学之士,而其书艺卓越,这都和中国「学而优则仕」以及「书为功名、画为利禄」的传统有关。

举凡中国历史上的帝皇、名臣,如唐太宗、宋徽宗,以及秦始皇朝的李斯,唐太宗朝的褚遂良,宋代的苏轼、黄庭坚,乃至清代的刘墉、林则徐,就连历史上具争议性的人物,如秦桧、蔡京、严嵩、康生、郑孝胥等人,都是一流的书法家。中国历史上著名的书法家还有王羲之、颜真卿、欧阳询、柳公权、张旭、米芾、蔡襄、鲜于枢、赵孟俯、董其昌、王铎、康有为等。

现代中国书法发展成五种书体分别是:楷书、行书、草书、隶书、篆书。从19世纪80年代开始,国家开始重视书法文化的发展,成立了中国书法家协会,以后各地方的书法协会相继成立,现在书法协会已经有了相当完善的展览机制,包括四年一次的国展和每年一次的单项展,各地方的展览更是五花八门。

现在中国已有至少50所大学开设的书法专业,并健全了书法从本科到博士的学位建制。本科阶段书法的主要课程有:五体书法技法和理论、书论、书法美学、美学概论、中国古文字学、文献学、诗词学、书法史、中国美术史、篆刻、中国国画基础、碑帖学等。

Calligraphy is an important part of Chinese art. Its form of expression is dependent on the art of Chinese characters, and Chinese characters are ideographic characters, and the combination of strokes is varied. Compared with the phonetic characters of other nationalities, Chinese characters are more concise. In addition, Chinese calligraphy not only has a complete set of brushwork (point, horizontal, skew, vertical, hook, etc.), but also has a mature aesthetic system. Following the structural laws of Chinese characters and changing combinations, you can express the art of calligraphy in various poses and create different looks and tastes of beauty.

Calligraphy is an art native to China with a long and profound tradition of its own. It is one of the four arts of piano, chess, calligraphy and calligraphy. In ancient China, calligraphy had a very high degree of participation, and ordinary intellectuals paid varying degrees of effort to learn calligraphy, and a large number of calligraphers were produced. Many dynasties in China since the Qin and Han dynasties have produced a lot of calligraphy works; the best of them have become the most precious collections of the royal family, nobles and literati. In addition, Chinese calligraphy has a rich, complete, and consistent theoretical system, which shows that calligraphy was a very mature art in ancient China.

Chinese calligraphy has a very good foundation for life. Many perfect calligraphy works exist in the form of letters, poems, manuscripts, inscriptions, epitaphs, plaques, screens, interior decorations, etc. Most of these works have written content and the artistic beauty of calligraphy complements each other. specialty. Chinese calligraphy and Chinese painting, seal cutting, dance, music and other art forms influence each other.

Chinese calligraphy has been valued by those in power and intellectuals in ancient China, and having a certain level of calligraphy is one of the basic qualities of ancient Chinese intellectuals. Many emperors attached great importance to the study of calligraphy, and some emperors even had a very high standard and were well-known calligraphers, such as Song Huizong. Chinese calligraphy has directly affected the development of calligraphy in Japan, Korea and other places, especially the part where Chinese characters are used as the content of writing.

Calligraphy is an art form of characters in the world. Among them, “Chinese calligraphy” is a traditional line art in China based on the script of Chinese characters. In a broad sense, calligraphy refers to the writing rules of language symbols. In other words, calligraphy refers to writing according to the characteristics and meaning of the text, using its calligraphy, structure, and composition to make it a beautiful work of art. The necessary tools are brush, ink and Chinese paper. Chinese calligraphy is a performance art created by the Han nationality. It is known as: silent poetry, dance without action; painting without picture, music without sound.

Calligraphy was designated as one of the “six arts” by Confucius, and it was a necessary skill and technique for ancient gentlemen. As the ancients regarded reading, literacy, and handwriting equally, calligraphy is no longer a pure technique, and is equivalent to learning. Therefore, since ancient times, Chinese people have valued calligraphy as a tool for carrying Taoism, a attire for articles, and an external manifestation of personal learning. Since the establishment of the system of scholarship, China has paid special attention to the calligraphy of scholars. In the Tang Dynasty, it was even more clearly stated to obtain official positions by “body, speech, calligraphy, and debate.” The “Guange Body” dedicated to Hanlin was created. It’s no wonder that the famous officials in Chinese history are well-learned, and their calligraphy is excellent. This is all related to the Chinese tradition of “learning is good and good,” and “books are fame and painting for profit.”

For example, emperors and famous officials in Chinese history, such as Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty and Song Huizong, as well as Li Si of the First Emperor of Qin Dynasty, Chu Suiliang of Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty, Su Shi and Huang Tingjian of Song Dynasty, and even Liu Yong and Lin Zexu of Qing Dynasty. Controversial figures, such as Qin Hui, Cai Jing, Yan Song, Kang Sheng, Zheng Xiaoxu, etc., are all first-class calligraphers. Famous calligraphers in Chinese history include Wang Xizhi, Yan Zhenqing, Ouyang Xun, Liu Gongquan, Zhang Xu, Mi Fu, Cai Xiang, Xian Yushu, Zhao Mengfu, Dong Qichang, Wang Duo, Kang Youwei, etc.

Modern Chinese calligraphy has developed into five script styles: regular script, running script, cursive script, official script, and seal script. Beginning in the 1880s, the country began to attach importance to the development of calligraphy culture and established the Chinese Calligraphers Association. Later, calligraphy associations in various places were established. Now the Calligraphy Association has a fairly complete exhibition mechanism, including the national exhibition once every four years. And the annual single exhibition, the exhibitions in various places are even more diverse.

At present, China has at least 50 universities offering calligraphy majors, and the degree system for calligraphy from undergraduate to doctoral degree has been improved. The main courses of calligraphy at the undergraduate level are: five-type calligraphy techniques and theory, calligraphy, calligraphy aesthetics, introduction to aesthetics, ancient Chinese philology, philology, poetry, history of calligraphy, history of Chinese art, seal cutting, basics of Chinese painting, rubbings, etc.