**Math Symbols , 数学符号 , shù xué fú hào 。**

Plus , 加 , jiā 。

Minus , 减 , jiǎn 。

Multiply , 乘 , chéng 。

Divide , 除 , chú 。

Equal , 等于 , děng yú 。

**数学符号的发明及使用比数字要晚，但其数量却超过了数字。现代数学常用的数学符号已超过了200个，其中，每一个符号都有一段有趣的经历。**

The invention and use of mathematical symbols were later than numbers, but their numbers exceeded numbers. There are more than 200 mathematical symbols commonly used in modern mathematics, and each symbol has an interesting experience.

加号曾经有好几种，现代数学通用“+”号。“+”号是由拉文“et”（“和”的意思）演变而来的。十六世纪，意大利科学家塔塔里亚用意大利文“plu”（“加”的意思）的第一个字母表示加，草为“μ”最后都变成了“+”号。“-”号是从拉丁文“minus”（“减”的意思）演变来的，一开始简写为m，再因快速书写而简化为“-”了。

There used to be several plus signs, and the “+” sign is commonly used in modern mathematics. The “+” sign evolved from Lavin “et” (meaning “and”). In the sixteenth century, the Italian scientist Tataria used the first letter of the Italian word “plu” (meaning “plus”) to denote “plus”. The word “μ” was changed to “+”. The “-” sign evolved from the Latin “minus” (meaning “minus”). It was abbreviated as m at first, and then shortened to “-” due to rapid writing.

也有人说，卖酒的商人用“-”表示酒桶里的酒卖了多少。以后，当把新酒灌入大桶的时候，就在“-”上加一竖，意思是把原线条勾销，这样就成了个“+”号。

It is also said that merchants who sell wine use “-” to indicate how much wine in the barrel has been sold. Later, when pouring new wine into the big barrel, add a vertical line to the “-“, which means to cancel the original line, so that it becomes a “+” sign.

到了十五世纪，德国数学家魏德美正式确定：“+”用作加号，“-”用作减号。

In the fifteenth century, the German mathematician Weidemei officially determined: “+” is used as a plus sign, and “-” is used as a minus sign.

乘号曾经用过十几种，现代数学通用两种。一个是“×”，最早是英国数学家奥屈特1631年提出的；一个是“·”，最早是英国数学家赫锐奥特首创的。德国数学家莱布尼茨认为：“×”号像拉丁字母“X”，可能引起混淆而加以反对，并赞成用“·”号（事实上点乘在某些情况下亦易与小数点相混淆）。后来他还提出用“∩“表示相乘。这个符号在现代已应用到集合论中了。

There have been more than a dozen multiplication signs, and two are commonly used in modern mathematics. One is “×”, which was first proposed by British mathematician Ochet in 1631; the other is “·”, which was first created by British mathematician Herriot. The German mathematician Leibniz believed that the “×” sign is like the Latin letter “X”, which may cause confusion and object to it. He favors the use of the “·” sign (in fact, the dot multiplication is also easily confused with the decimal point in some cases. ). Later, he also proposed to use “∩” to denote multiplication. This symbol has been applied to set theory in modern times.

到了十八世纪，美国数学家欧德莱确定，把“×”作为乘号。他认为“×”是“+”的旋转变形，是另一种表示增加的符号。

In the eighteenth century, American mathematician Odlec decided to use “×” as the multiplication sign. He thinks that “×” is the rotation deformation of “+”, which is another symbol for increase.

“÷”最初作为减号，在欧洲大陆长期流行。直到1631年英国数学家奥屈特用“：”表示除或比，另外有人用“－”（除线）表示除。后来瑞士数学家拉哈在他所著的《代数学》里，才根据群众创造，正式将“÷”作为除号。

“÷” was originally used as a minus sign and has long been popular in continental Europe. Until 1631, the British mathematician Okut used “:” to indicate division or ratio, and some people used “-” (division line) to indicate division. Later, in his book “Algebra”, Swiss mathematician Laha officially used “÷” as the division sign based on the creation of the masses.

平方根号曾经用拉丁文“Radix”（根）的首尾两个字母合并起来表示，十七世纪初叶，法国数学家笛卡儿在他的《几何学》中，第一次用“√”表示根号。“√”是由拉丁字线“r”的变形，“￣”是括线。

The square root was once expressed by the combination of the first and last two letters of the Latin “Radix” (root). At the beginning of the seventeenth century, French mathematician Descartes used “√” for the first time in his “Geometry”. number. “√” is a modification of the Latin word line “r”, and “￣” is a bracket line.

十六世纪法国数学家维叶特用“=”表示两个量的差别。可是英国牛津大学数学、修辞学教授列考尔德觉得：用两条平行而又相等的直线来表示两数相等是最合适不过的了，于是等于符号“=”就从1540年开始使用起来。

In the 16th century, French mathematician Viyette used “=” to indicate the difference between two quantities. However, Lekauld, a professor of mathematics and rhetoric at Oxford University in the United Kingdom, felt that it was the most appropriate to use two parallel and equal straight lines to represent the equality of two numbers, so the equal sign “=” was used in 1540.

1591年，法国数学家韦达在菱形中大量使用这个符号，才逐渐为人们接受。十七世纪德国莱布尼茨广泛使用了“=”号，他还在几何学中用“∽”表示相似，用“≌”表示全等。

In 1591, the French mathematician Veda used this symbol extensively in the diamond shape, and it was gradually accepted by people. In the seventeenth century, Leibniz, Germany, used the “=” sign extensively. He also used “∽” to indicate similarity and “≌” to indicate congruence in geometry.

大于号“>”和小于号“<”，是1631年英国著名代数学家赫锐奥特创用。至于“≥”、“≤”、“≠”这三个符号的出现，是很晚很晚的事了。大括号“{}”和中括号“[]”是代数创始人之一魏治德创造的。

The greater than sign “>” and the less than sign “<” were created by the famous British algebraist Heriot in 1631. As for the appearance of the three symbols “≥”, “≤” and “≠”, it is very late and late. The braces “{}” and the square brackets “[]” were created by Wei Zhide, one of the founders of algebra.

任意号（全称量词）∀来源于英语中的Arbitrary一词，因为小写和大写均容易造成混淆,故将其单词首字母大写后倒置。同样，存在号（存在量词）∃来源于Exist一词中E的反写。

Any sign (full quantifier) ∀ comes from the word Arbitrary in English, because lowercase and uppercase are easy to cause confusion, so the first letter of the word is capitalized and inverted. Similarly, the existence number (existence quantifier) ∃ comes from the reverse of E in the word Exist.