The head of the word “Cao” is the top part of the character “Cao”, which is a radical of the Chinese character. Nowadays, it is written horizontally and vertically. According to current regulations, its stroke order is to write one horizontal line first, and then two vertical lines.
The cursive heads written in this way are simplified characters. In the past, the cursive heads of traditional Chinese characters were broken in the middle, and the printed fonts were two crosses side by side (plan four paintings).
1. Let me talk about the word “grass” first
Some people look down on the simplified characters nowadays and say that the traditional characters in the past are in orthodoxy. In fact, the traditional characters in the past were also simplified. For example, the earlier wording of the initials in cursive is “艸”. It consists of two 屮, so when looking up “Kangxi Dictionary” and “Ciyuan” and other dictionaries, dictionaries, the radicals of the beginning of the grass are six pictures.
屮, sound chè, this is a pictographic character, “Shuowen Jiezi” said that it is “the first birth of plants and trees. The image is out of shape, there are branches and stems.” Two 屮 together, it becomes a 豸. 艸 is the original wording of grass and trees, and it can also be said to be its “traditional character”. In the past, some literati insisted on using grass instead of using grass. They thought grass was a “vulgar word.”
Grass originally meant “acorn” (the seeds of oak trees, namely oak trees and tussah). Later, people used “grass” as “grass” and wrote “grass”. But if the loan took a long time, it was “not returned”, and a new soap character (approximately rolled up the tail of the grass character) was created to represent the “acorn” mentioned above. The shell of an acorn can dye white fabric black, so “soap” is extended to black. Nowadays, it is said that “indiscriminately”. In this way, the grass “single-mindedly” became the grass of flowers, trees, and trees, but the original word “艸” was thrown aside. Apart from a few “old antiques”, no one used this word anymore, which was trash.
2. The words at the beginning of the word “Cao” are related to “Cao”
In principle, the characters at the beginning of the word “cursive” are related to grass.
Some are the components of grass. For example, the stem (stem) is the stalk, and the flower (hua) is the reproductive organ of the grass. In ancient times, it was written as hua, and later a flower character was created. Hua means glorious, prosperous, and Chinese. And simplified it to Hua. There are also buds, English (also flowers), buds (flower bones), awns (grass tips), seedlings and so on.
Some are the names of grasses. Of course, the ancient classification is not as scientific as it is today, but refers to plants similar to grass or creatures that look like the above-mentioned plants. Such as reeds, reeds, mushrooms, grass, wormwood, pine, moss, wormwood, algae, sage, Xiao, dodder, tea, tea, lotus, lotus and so on. This type of word is the most.
Some have certain properties derived from grass, such as recklessness, vastness, desolation, fragrance, fragrance, bitterness (bitterness is originally the name of the plant, but it is later emphasized because of its bitter taste) and so on.
All in all, all the words starting with grass are related to grass.
3. Fewer numbers are not really cursive prefixes
However, some characters now look like cursive prefixes. In the “Xinhua Dictionary”, the index of the radicals is also placed in the radicals of “cursive prefixes”, but they are not cursive prefixes. These words are roughly in the following categories:
It looks like Rong, Ying, Ying, Ying, Ying, etc., that is, all the words with “Bald Baogai” under the “Cao” are fake grass prefixes obtained by simplification. For example, the traditional characters of the above characters are Rong, Ying, Ying, Ying, etc., which are all bald Baogai under the two fires on the top. Because of the cursive writing, the two fires on the top have the appearance of “grass” at the beginning of the word.
At the top of the words Gong, Gong, Xiang, and Huang, there was a Twenty at first, not the beginning of a cursive.
Dream (dream), 薨, contempt, respect, old (old), protect (protect), worm, get (get), badger, guan, pot, stork, right (right), zygomatic, persuade (persuade) and other words above They are not really cursive heads either. They are the same as the parts on the two horns on the upper two corners of Mi (there was a popular TV series earlier). They are both “sheep’s heads”, and they are all related to things like shofar horns.
As for the festival, this is the jiehua character of the festival, and many of the cursive characters with the initials of bamboo are written as the initials of cursive.
These fake cursive characters are not many, and they are very regular, so they are easy to see.
By the way, due to the simplified characters, there are also a few real cursive prefixes that are not cursive. For example, Lan, this is the orchid of the orchid, the traditional Chinese character is Lan; the traditional Chinese character is Gai (the original meaning is to use grass thatch to cover, cover), the traditional Chinese character is Gai.
4. Some words have the beginning of cursive but the meaning now seems to have nothing to do with cursive
Some characters are at the beginning of cursive and their original meaning should be related to cursive. However, in the long-term process of character evolution, it has other extended meanings, but its original meaning is gradually forgotten. Let’s give a few examples.
Art, when you see the word art, you can recall the meanings of art, literature and art, skills, and craftsmanship. However, its original meaning is planting. At first it was written as 𡎐, and later it was written as 蓺. Yuanling (art) also means planting, and Yuanling (art) has the meaning of planting, and the font has also become art. In the end, the people thought that the word was too complicated, so they simplified art and wrote art. “The Book of Songs·Xiaoya·Chuci”: The art in “My Art Millet” is planting, and this sentence was later written in “Thousand Characters”.
Ruo is generally the same as “如”, and it is often said “如若”. However, “Shu Wen Jie Zi” says that the original meaning of this word is “choose dishes”, the upper part is 艸, and the lower right means hand, which means picking vegetables by hand. The extension is choice. In “Guoyu·Jinyu”, Qin Mugong said to his two great masters, Ming and Gongsunzhi: “The rebellion of the husband and the Jin country, who should I make the two sons of Xian Ruofu stand up?” Here Ruo is the choice. However, people rarely use it this way. The current “such as” is a fake loan. It also means “you, yours”. It is recorded in the “Historical Records” that Xiang Yu caught Liu Bang’s father and threatened to “cook” him. Liu Bang said that we are dating brothers, “I am a man. I must be a man. If you want to cook Erwong, you will be lucky enough to share a piece of the pie.” Said “My dad is your dad”, when encountering Liu Bang like this, Xiang Yu can’t do anything about treating a gangster with a gangster. The Ruo here is also a pretence, borrowed as “Nai, Er”, that is, you. Nowadays, most people only remember Ruruo, borrowing for too long, the original meaning has been forgotten by people.
Mo, people now have the impression of “no, don’t,” and they can’t see the relationship with grass. In fact, this is a very interesting understanding word. The word “grass” on the top is 艸, and the “big” at the bottom is also 艸. The sun (sun) in the middle has fallen into the middle of the grass, which means that the sun has set. “Mo” (the sun is gone) is extended to nothing, and don’t or unequal means negative. Later, Mo specifically expressed this extended meaning, and Mo in the original meaning of “sunset” and “dark” was written as “twilight”. This newly created word has one more day added below, which is a bit repetitive, but everyone has accepted it. With “Mo” as the musical note, some of the characters created have the meaning of being covered up or not: the tomb (hidden underground), the curtain (enclosed with a towel), and Mu (longing for and longing in the heart).
Severe, the original meaning is grass. The extension is trivial, small, and cumbersome. For example, harsh laws (trivial and severe laws); harsh (too harsh, trivial requirements), harsh (too harsh, harsh).
Dong, the ancients called a certain kind of aquatic plant, which is thinner like rushes, and some people say it is lotus root. However, this meaning is no longer used by people. People only use Dong as the meaning of command (Dong Tong), management (Dong Cheng), Shouzheng (Dong Dao), and supervision. Chen Lin praised Yuan Shao in “For Yuan Shao Yu Zhou”, “Dong Tong Ying Yang, sweep away the evil.” (lead the army to sweep away the evil). Qu Yuan’s “Nine Chapters · Shejiang”: “I will not hesitate to Dong Dao, and I will be fainted for life.” (I will keep the right way without hesitation, even if I live in the dark for life). Nowadays, there is still the position of “director”, the organization of the “board of directors”, when someone is asked to “direct his affairs”, directors mean management, responsibility, and supervision.
Recommend, recommend. It is generally believed that recommendation is a simplified word for recommendation, and now it means recommendation, recommendation, and recommendation. In ancient times, recommended and recommended were two different words. Jian is a kind of grass, which is said to be the grass eaten by deer gods and beasts who can distinguish right from wrong. Jian is a kind of straw mat. The ancients sat on the ground, and Jian is the straw mat underneath. The extension is to put it below, then it is to contribute, and then it is to be recommended. Since recommendation and recommendation have the same pronunciation, the ancients often borrowed it, and in the future many people thought it was a different way of writing one word, and finally simplified recommendation to recommendation.
藐, the original meaning is chrysanthemum, which is comfrey. Later, under the guise of sing, sing means small eyes, which is extended to be small and small. “Mencius”: “Speaking of adults will despise them.” Contempt is often used nowadays. Originally, they were all used to use the word stun, but people have become accustomed to using contempt to borrow. Over time, the original meaning of contempt is forgotten.
Of course, there are many such characters. Nowadays, looking at these characters, it is not easy to see the relationship between them and grass, but their original meanings are all related to grass.
5. Words with cursive prefixes created by chemists
Among the Chinese characters produced in modern times, the chemist is the “big man” who made the characters. They created most of the new characters in modern times. On the one hand, they created some new characters. On the other hand, they used some dead or near-death Chinese characters to give these characters new sounds and meanings. Among them, the chemical words with the beginning of the grass are mainly: benzene, naphthalene, pyrene, benzyl, acenaphthene, indene, terpene, anthracene, phenanthrene, etc. (the other meanings of phenanthrene are also commonly used).
These characters are all transliterations of Latin terms, except for the pronunciation of the initial part of the word in the grass, which is the pronunciation of the opening syllable in the Latin term.
Among these characters, the earliest transliterated word is benzene. English is benzene, this word is derived from benzoic, and also from French benjoin, Italian benzoino, which means benzoin. This is the resin secreted by the benzoin tree, which was obtained from the South or Southeast Asia in ancient China. In this way, when translating, since the source of the word benzene is related to the secretions of plants, it also comes from the meaning of fragrance, so it is translated into benzene with a cursive prefix. Benzene is a Chinese character that the ancients didn’t use but was almost obsolete. Chemists used it, and the pronunciation did not change.
Naphthalene is two benzene rings combined together, benzyl is a hydrogen atom on the methyl group replaced by a phenyl group, and the remaining groups or compounds with cursive heads all carry or incorporate one or more benzenes. Rings (at least in the initial naming), they can all be regarded as derivatives of benzene, called aromatic compounds (in fact, they do not necessarily have a truly pleasant aroma). When translating their names, they followed their “predecessors”-Benz, with the initials of cursive characters.
These words were newly created by chemists or refurbished by “waste utilization” in modern times. Because of their roots, benzene, are translated from words related to plants. These words are all understandable with the beginning of grass. For the meaning of the beginning of grass, it can be considered as a source. In order to translate these words and create these characters, these early Chinese chemists really took great pains.
However, the painstaking effort of the advanced chemists is now largely unknown to people. Our chemistry textbook does not say this. It is not only the words and words used in chemistry, but also other subjects such as mathematics, physics, and biology. Our textbooks should contain some knowledge about the history of science (including the history of Chinese science). Teachers don’t necessarily teach it, and students know it at a glance. This is very useful for improving students’ scientific quality. However, nowadays, some knowledge is increasingly obliterated by time, and there are very few people who know it. If we do not work hard to excavate and record, I am afraid that the future “archaeological” task will be more difficult. However, it seems that these issues have not received enough attention from relevant parties.